Collaborative projects run by the PEARL Research Group

The aims of this study are to:

a) Translate the PIPP-R scale into Finnish, Icelandic, Norwegian and Swedish.

b) Test the content validity of each of the translated versions of the measure using Cognitive Interviews.


Reserachers from PEARL: Randi Dovland Andersen, Sigríður María Atladóttir, Anna Axelin, Mats Eriksson, Guðrún Kristjánsdóttir, Emma Olsson, Bente Vederhus

Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the revised version of the Premature Infant Pain Profile


Premature infants are born into this world weeks and often months early and are especially vulnerable to pain. Intensive treatment is often necessary for survival and includes many painful interventions and procedures. In order to effectively treat pain in the neonatal period and diminish the negative effects of pain, pain must be recognized.


The Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) is one of the most extensively validated measures for assessment of procedural pain in premature infants. A revised version, PIPP-R, was recently published and is reported to be more user-friendly than the original version.

Use of comfort measures and sweet solutions for pain management in neonates – Nordic data from the EuroPAIN Survey


EUROpean-Pain-Audit-In-Neonates (EUROPAIN) was a prospective observational study of routine clinical practices related to sedation/analgesia for newborn infants in neonatal intensive care units across Europe. For Finland, Norway and Sweden data we also collected data on comfort measures / non-pharmacological treatment.


Researchers from PEARL: Randi Dovland Andersen, Mats Eriksson, Tarja Pölkki

Pain in infancy and life-long control of the stress response


This study will investigate if pain near to the time of birth results in impaired ability to cope with stress that persists into adolescence among ostensibly healthy children.


Researchers from PEARL: Mats Eriksson, Scott Montgomery

Neurophysiological measures of neonatal pain - a comparative study


In order to provide newborn infants with correct pain alleviation there is a need for reliable and easy-to-use tools to assess the pain. We are comparing Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) with Premature Infant Pain Profile-Revised (PIPP-R). The research group has experience with all the methods separately, but they have never been compared to each other before.


Researchers from PEARL: Randi Dovland-Andersen. Mats Eriksson, Maria Gradin, Emma Olsson

Sweet solution to minimize pain and stress during routine medical examination of newborn infants


Every year over 100 000 newborn Swedish infants undergo a routienely performed medical examination, including a painful check of the stability of his hip joints. The pain-reaction is stressful for them and their parents and makes the examination more difficult. This study will examine if a small amount of sweet solution given in the mouth will minimize the pain-reaction and facilitates the examination. It would be beneficial both in terms of less pain and discomfort and in terms of smoother and more efficient medical examinations.


Researchers from PEARL: Mats Eriksson, Emma Olsson



Translation, validation and cultural adaption of the Comfort Neo pain Scale


The Comfort Neo pain Scale is a 6 item behaviour scale for measurement of prolonged pain and distress in neonates. The instrument is developed by Monique van Dijk, and is translated into Danish. The Comfort Neo pain scale is currently implemented in all Danish NICU`s.


The aims of this study are

1)To translate the instrument into Norwegian according to Wild`s 10 steps, and consequently assess content validity by focus group interviews.

2)To culturally adapt The Comfort Neo pain Scale into a Norwegian NICU setting.


Researchers from PEARL: Lene Tandle Lyngstad and Solfrid Steinnes




PEARL is an acronym for Pain in Early Life. We are a group of researchers dedicated to the management of pain in infants and children.